Chronic shortening of the upper traps
This condition comes on over a period of time where the upper fibres of the trapezius becomes short and fibrotic and may be a result of poor posture, long term stress or injury.
If left untreated this may lead to increased posture issues such as rolling forward of the shoulder/s leading to a Gothic arch from the shoulders to the head and separation of the upper and middle fibres of the Traps, headaches, poor biomechanics of the shoulder and posture issues.
Impingement syndrome
Typical of when the arm is being used for overhead activities.  Pain will be felt on the upper and lateral part of the shoulder when the arm is raised above horizontal and can be more painful when lowering. There may be a grinding sensation felt upon palpation.
Common with Tennis players, Cricket bowlers, Painters, Plasterers.
Frozen shoulder
Often misdiagnosed as this has similar symptoms to impingement, coracoid impingement, bursitis. Although a common condition, I have had many cases where results were very quick when the client was expecting a lengthy scenario, see Allan Locheds testimonial).
Acromial bursitis
A bursa is basically a fluid sac, Pain will be present in the upper and anterior part of the shoulder, may be associated with impingement, see above.
Tenderness and sometimes a sponginess will be felt, redness and swelling may be present,  similar characteristics to the above.
Coracoid impingement
Anterior shoulder pain located near the anterior deltoid, Pain will be felt by reaching across the chest. avoid surgery unless there is no other option, up to 6 month recovery time if operated on, in my experience with clients who had pain in this region was sorted within a month.
Rotator cuff
There are 4 muscles in this group one of which is involved in impingement (see above) and can be responsible for up to 75% of shoulder pain. the others perform internal and external rotation of the upper arm.
As the shoulder is an extremely versatile joint the rotator cuff is susceptible to injuries such as rupture, partial tears, inlammtion and thickening of tendons.
Intense pain is felt when injured, may ease with rest but returns immediately with exertion.
Pain is often worse at night ie lying on the injured side.
pain will be felt on rotation such as reaching into your back pocket or scratching the back of your head.
Long head of the bicep tendinopathy
Another anterior shoulder pain, although this muscles primary function is to flex the elbow, its also a synergist to the anterior deltoid which raises the arm at the shoulder.  Pain will be felt at the front of the shouder when lifting the arm straight out in front or flexion of the elbow.
This tendon commonly suffers partial tears or even complete ruptures to people over the age of 40 – 50 years.
Axillary nerve dysfunction
This nerve can be injured as a result of and operation, fall or impingement, pain will be felt on the outside of the shoulder but you may not be able to pin point it, this because the pain is referred from else where. If not injured from an operation a look at training technique, intensity, position at work will be needed along with treatments to help the nerve recover quicker.

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